Most of these difficulties may be understood as the by-product of causal variables that offer limited variation through time and cases that are extremely heterogeneous. The article uses this definition as a basis to explore a series of contrasts between cross-case study and case study research. One should not jump to conclusions about the research design appropriate to a given setting without considering the entire range of issues involved—some of which may be more important than others. Often, these local contexts are essential to cross-case testing. In Search of Prosperity: Analytic Narratives on Economic Growth. The question then becomes why such a robust correlation exists. There are currently two factors that will continue hindering the growth in traffic over the next several months.
Case Studies and Theory Development. Datasets are now available to study many problems of concern to the social sciences. In all three situations, the relationship is usually assumed to be perfectly consistent, i. The best one can usually manage, under the circumstances, is some form of convergent validation by which different indices of the same concept are compared or small adjustments in the coding intended to correct for aggregation problems or measurement error. Traditionally, scientific methodology has been defined by a segregation of conjecture and refutation.
The case study is typically focused on within-case variation if there a cross-case component it is probably secondary. We are a portfolio intelligence company. Similarly, there are longstanding disputes about whether it makes sense to lump poor and rich societies together in a single sample, or whether these constitute distinct populations. Sociological Methods and Research, 29: 3—33. One might consider this issue in the context of recent work on democracy.
Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. A study of the French Revolution may be conceptualized as a study of revolution, of social revolution, of revolt, of political violence, and so forth. Where, by contrast, the relevant evidence is equally good for all potential cases, and is comparable across those cases, there is no reason to shy away from cross-case analysis. Case Study Research: Principles and Practices. My hope, therefore, is that this chapter will contribute to breaking down the boundaries that have separated these rival genres within the subfield of comparative politics. Linkio is a a brand new site.
Indeed, it is not clear whether any large-N cross-case analysis is possible prior to the twentieth century. . Within-case evidence, or cross-case evidence drawn from a handful of most-similar cases, may be more useful than cross-case evidence, even though the ultimate interest of the investigator is in a broader population of cases. Of course, researchers may choose to define these terms in many different ways. A series of case studies might therefore be referred to as a sample if they are relatively brief and relatively numerous; it is a matter of emphasis and of degree. Case Study versus Cross-case Analysis I have argued that the case study approach to research is most usefully defined as the intensive study of a single unit or a small number of units the cases , for the purpose of understanding a larger class of similar units a population of cases. Cross-case research, by contrast, is criticized for its construction of artificial research designs that decontextualize the realm of social behavior by employing abstract variables that seem to bear little relationship to the phenomena of interest.
Aligning ontology and methodology in comparative politics. Optimal matching methods for historical sequences. However, usually when one uses the term sample one is implying that the number of cases is rather large. Confusingly, N may also be used to designate the number of cases in a study, a usage that I shall try to avoid. When cases are described individually, however, a clinician stands a better chance of gleaning some important information, since specific problems and specific procedures are usually described in more detail. Instrumental variables and the search for identification: from supply and demand to natural experiments. The case study method may be defended, as well as criticized, along these lines.
Just follow a simple procedure and your solution will be delivered to you. However, the study of smaller social and political units regions, cities, villages, communities, social groups, families or specific institutions political parties, interest groups, businesses is equally common in other subfields, and perhaps increasingly so in comparative politics. A subsequent medication error makes the situation worse, leading a stay that is much longer than anticipated. As an example, it can be mentioned that, if there is a high school candidate so a postgraduate paper is not only going to have an influence on A Grade. The methodology of positive economics. I use the terms proposition, hypothesis, inference, and argument interchangeably.
Narrative, event-structure analysis, and causal interpretation in historical sociology. European Journal of Political Research, 44 2 : 269—93. The case study format often gives the researcher an opportunity to fact-check, to consult multiple sources, to go back to primary materials, and to overcome whatever biases may affect the secondary literature. Weak relationships are difficult to observe in one instance. Harry Eckstein himself acknowledges that his argument for case studies as a form of theory confirmation is largely hypothetical. Where do like cases end and unlike cases begin? Is Middletown representative of other cities in America? Consider the contrast between formulating a standardized survey for a large group of respondents and formulating an in-depth interview with a single subject or a small set of subjects, such as that undertaken by Dennis Chong in the previous example.