Whether this was true or not, Elizabeth retaliated by supporting a Dutch revolt against Spain and funding attacks on Spanish ships. A small force of Cornish militia fled in blind panic at their first sight of the Spanish troops and Penzance was then bombarded, destroying houses and sinking three ships in its harbour. The English navy pursued the Spanish as far as Scotland and then turned back for want of supplies. Myth, driven by Elizabethan propaganda, has shaped our view of that dramatic running fight up the English Channel. A fast English ship conveyed the news and a series of beacons were lit along the coast to spread the warning.
Ship for ship the Spanish had the advantage in power but the English had speed and strategic standing. Cropped Armada portrait highlighting background. Queen Elizabeth had heard mutterings of the intended invasion of England by Spain for some time. Recusants — those who refused to attend Anglican services because they were Catholic — were disarmed and those regarded as most dangerous were imprisoned without trial in a number of fortresses, such as Wisbech Castle in Cambridgeshire. The English fleet was mobilised and intelligence continued to be gathered about the timing and route of the attack, as well as the numbers of ships and troops involved. During the nine-day battle, the smaller, more maneuverable British ships met the Spanish Armada and inflicted terrible losses. Many things contributed to the Spanish incursion of British waters.
The successful defence of the kingdom against invasion on such an unprecedented scale boosted the prestige of England's Queen Elizabeth I and encouraged a sense of English pride and nationalism. At first the aim of the Spanish Armada was to liberate the captive Queen of Scots, but when Mary was executed for conspiring Elizabeth's death in 1587, Philip planned to invade England in the name of his daughter, the Infanta Isabella. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts for introductory level classes in modern European and World history. Queen Elizabeth was very smart, she flirted with her suitors to get what she wanted but never got to the point of marriage. This led to the 80 years war and eventually Holland's independence. William Shakespeare was at his peak throughout her reign as was Christopher Marlowe and the Globe theatre was built in 1599.
Andrew Belsey and have pointed out the striking geometry of the painting, with the repeating patterns of circles and arches described by the crown, the globe, and the sleeves, , and gown worn by the queen. At this point it was obvious that the alliance alone had made Philip hesitate. The Act of Uniformity 1558 required the population of England to attend Sunday service in an Anglican church where a new book of common prayer was read from. In a decisive battle, the superior English guns won the day, and the devastated Armada was forced to retreat north to Scotland. Francis Bacon began the scientific revolution.
Instead of helping to restore her fellow Queen, Elizabeth used the situation to her advantage and detained Mary in England, a detainment that would last nineteen years. The English fleets followed the Spanish out to sea from a distance but were unable to attack due to lack of firepower McDermott 134. In the 1500s there was a major rivalry on the seas between the ships of Britain and Spain over control of trade in the New World. I know already, by your forwardness, that you have deserved rewards and crowns; and we do assure you, on the word of a prince, they shall be duly paid you. After leading England through 30 years of prosperity, she enjoyed popularity even among her religious opponents. The first act being the Act of Supremacy 1558 which re-established Elizabeth as the supreme governor of the Church of England.
Elizabeth made many great decisions throughout the span of her rule but even the greatest leaders need supporters and advisors. By not marrying, Elizabeth was able to stay focused on business at hand without the distractions of having to raise children or look after a family. On July 21, the English navy began bombarding the seven-mile-long line of Spanish ships from a safe distance, taking full advantage of their long-range heavy guns. Shakespeare wrote 38 plays impacting world literature. The period after the defeat of the Spanish Armada was a time of intermittent conflict and battles between the two opposing sides. Let tyrants fear, I have always so behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good-will of my subjects; and therefore I am come amongst you, as you see, at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live and die amongst you all; to lay down for my God, and for my kingdom, and my people, my honour and my blood, even in the dust. On board the battle-damaged San Mateo, beached between Ostend and Sluis after the battle of Gravelines, two Englishmen were killed by Dutch sailors — one named as William Browne, a brother of Viscount Montague.
In what became known as the Battle of Gravelines, the Royal Navy inched perilously close to the Spanish fleet and unleashed repeated salvos of cannon fire. I have chosen some, of what I consider to be the key moments of her reign to look at how successful she was. This threw the Catholics into an outrage and France suddenly found itself in a civil war. In July 1588, Philip finally managed to launch the supposedly invincible Spanish Armada. Portrait of Sir Francis Drake. These strategies included making his own final decisions in private where he could not be influenced by exterior forces, acquiring written reports from advisors, not second guessing his own decisions, and having private, face-to-face interviews to avoid being ganged up on by all his advisors.
The challenge from Spain came swiftly considering they had been planning for quite some time. The purpose of the mission was to depose Elizabeth, put Mary, then Isabella, on the throne, and make England Roman Catholic once again. The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 has long been held as one of England's greatest military achievements. Fleeing north, the Armada was wracked by storms. However, there was no port to retrieve the soldiers in the Netherlands. On 8th February 1587, Mary was executed at Fotheringhay Castle, Elizabeth vehemently denied ordering the death even though she signed the warrant.