Tank irrigation is, therefore, confined to the southern states. They are most often used for small, rectilinear, or oddly-shaped fields, hilly or mountainous regions, or in regions where labor is inexpensive. They are i Major Irrigation Projects, ii Medium Irrigation Projects and iii Minor Irrigation Projects. Maharashtra 94,000 ha , Karnataka 66,000 ha and Tamil Nadu 55,000 ha are some of the states where large areas have been brought under drip irrigation. It greatly enhances water use efficiency and can also be used for fertilizer application.
This can happen where there is overdevelopment of hydraulic infrastructure, usually for irrigation. In Maharashtra there is dearth of major irrigation projects. These areas include a large part of the Great Northern Plain, the deltaic regions of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Cauvery, parts of the Narmada and the Tapi valleys and the weathered layers of the Deccan Trap and crystalline rocks and the sedimentary zones of the Peninsula. There are various types of irrigation system practiced in India. Modern methodsof irrigation help save water They include: a Sprinkler system:This system is more useful on uneven land, having fewer water supplies. There are two main types of sprinklers used in lawn irrigation, pop-up spray heads and rotors. It is 154 km long and irrigates about 4 lakh hactares of land in Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur districts of Punjab.
When water is allowed to flow under high pressure with the help of a pump, it gets sprinkled on the crops. Out of the total area under irrigation, 40 per cent are irrigated by canals, 40 per cent by wells and 12 per cent by tanks. Normally, a well can irrigate 1 to 8 hectares of land. Surface water is used through canals, water reservoirs, tanks, lakes, ponds, while groundwater is used through wells, tube wells and artesian wells. Increasingly, agriculture uses untreated wastewater as a source of irrigation water. Need of Irrigation in Dry Areas: In dry areas, where rainfall ranges between 40 to 50 cm per year, the need arises for irrigation. They control floods, store water for irrigation and generate hydro-electric power.
That is why Indian agriculture is called a gamble in the monsoon. Many modern pivots feature devices. So it is essential to provide irrigation for production of crops etc, during the rest of the eight months. But in recent years well including tube well and canal have gained popularity and account for 53% and 30. There are big reservoirs like Nizam Sagar, Usman Sagar, Hossain Sagar, Krishna raj Sagar etc.
Evaporation and transpiration occurs according to temperature. In modern agriculture, drip irrigation is often combined with , further reducing evaporation, and is also the means of delivery of fertilizer. Normally, groundwater and surface water are used for irrigation and when water available in these sources is taken away artificially by flowing it for supplying water in required quantity to crops, it is called irrigation. But the tanks can be easily made by means of making dams in hollow spaces in which rain water is stored in large quantities for distribution in dry season, v Lastly, the scattered population of the tract also favours the system of tank irrigation to save rain water which could have ultimately flowed to ocean. In some years we get heavy rainfall, while in some other we do not get sufficient rainfall. Ahmadnagar and Poona districts in Maharashtra, and in eastern part of Nilgiri and Cardamom hills, especially in Ramanathapuram, Madurai, Coimbatore and areas between Tiruchirapalli and Guntur. This includes large areas of land in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and parts of southern states.
Canals of Maharashtra: 1 Mutha Canal Project: Under this project a barrage has been built across the Mutha River in 1879 at Khadakvasla from which two canals have been taken out. In this case the water level remains higher than the fields. About 68% of this area is in Asia, 17% in the Americas, 9% in Europe, 5% in Africa and 1% in Oceania. If is the biggest man made lake in the world. This system is greatly adopted in the States of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka, etc.
Shaped like a giant necklace garland this canal will have 2,900 subsidiary outlets along its length. This water is distributed through 432 km long canals to irrigate about 40,000 hectares of land in Madurai, and Ramanathapuram districts. More attention was paid to irrigation in order to make the country self-sufficient in production of food-crops, as a result of which about 37 per cent of the total farm lands have been provided with irrigational facility by now. There are four main methods of irrigation. Extensive irrigation is, therefore, necessary for more production. Instead there are small irrigation projects. It provides irrigation to about 4.
Since then the irrigated area under canal irrigation increased, but its share declined in 2009-10 irrigation increased area upto under 16697 thousand hectare. In addition to this, these projects have also been spots of tourist interest to attract tourists. It is similar in principle and action to subsurface basin irrigation. This water is taken through canals to irrigate the land in far away areas. Topography and Slope of Soil: Irrigation development is done according to structure of the ground level.