One criticism of Jung is that there is no evidence that archetypes are biologically based or similar to animal instincts Roesler, 2012. What was the cause between their intellectual break, and where did their differences lie? Adler believed Freud's preoccupation with sexuality reduced human nature to a single motivating factor Putnam, 1917. As we see, our unconscious usually regulates our lives in a positive way — we learn things, like riding a bicycle, or driving a car, and no longer need to think about it, we just do it. The middle born children, on the other hand, are not as pampered as their older or younger sibling, but they have a sense of superiority to dethrone their older sibling in a healthy competition. Horney gives two possible reasons for the justification of the presence of penis envy in women. Although, as with all growth processes, development is continuous, does not really begin to develop until Cycle of Growth Stage 5 Power. Conclusion These men have been criticized for their work; they have even criticized each others theories.
Although raised by a relatively poor Jewish family, Freud planned to study law at the University of Vienna. The nature of mans mental state he suggested was truly a wrap-around situation that drives the man. Then there is Adler, who was the first to have suggested the societal impact on emotions and thought processes and vice-versa, arguing that consciousness and culture have what could be termed as a symbiotic relationship. Instead, he saw this phenomenon as a result of the fact that boys are encouraged to be assertive in life, and girls are discouraged from the very same thing. After leaving Freud's school of thought, he formed individual psychology, which ironically enough, does not stress the individual.
Jung further developed the personality typologies; one of his most famous accomplishments. Dream analysis was useful in getting at the unconscious, because dreams arise from the desires of the unconscious Lunden, 1989. One repays a teacher badly if one remains only a pupil. The individual looks to better society as a whole, which will, in turn, benefit the individual. The three notable individuals either worked together at some point or corresponded on a number of topics, though they had varied views and each went ahead to adopt his unique theories.
Introverts and Extroverts Introvert Extrovert Energized by being alone Energized by being with others Avoids attention Seeks attention Speaks slowly and softly Speaks quickly and loudly Thinks before speaking Thinks out loud Stays on one topic Jumps from topic to topic Prefers written communication Prefers verbal communication Pays attention easily Distractible Cautious Acts first, thinks later Another concept proposed by Jung was the persona, which he referred to as a mask that we adopt. To discover the meaning of dreams, Freud used a process of free association, asking his patients to free associate to various dream symbols. Adler then began to see the inferiority complex as a catalyst for low self esteem which could lead to poor health via poor mental health. Carl Jung in Brief Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and the founder of Analytical Psychology. Jung decided that what motivates and influences behaviour is a psychic energy or life force, of which sexuality could be only one potential manifestation. Adler 1937, 1956 proposed the concept of the inferiority complex.
He also set up the idea of the Oedipus complex, where a young child has a sexual attraction to the opposite sex parent. According to Freud, the healthy person has his ego as the strongest part of his personality. Alfred Adler, an Austrian medical doctor and psychotherapist, turned out to be closely linked to Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychiatry who popularized theories of repression, defense mechanism and the unconscious mind. What makes any of us, any of these things? You shouldn't have any chocolate at all, as you are trying to lose weight. Second, at age 1 to 3, he must develop autonomy, or he will suffer from shame and doubt in the future. In addition, Horney once again criticizes Freud by saying that he puts too great an influence on the subconscious.
The id consists of our instincts striving to fulfill desires and get satisfaction. Freud, Adler, and Jung are unequivocally the most influential figures in modern psychology Comer, 2008. Freud mainly viewed the whole of the human psyche from a sexual perspective, and the concept of id, ego and super ego are also linked to the psycho-sexual perspective. Even in high school Frankl became interested in the ideas of Freud, came to him in personal correspondence. He didn't have much to work with as far as clothes or books. This is the time the Superego develops.
Freud is considered by his modern-day counterparts to be the founding father of analytic psychology, as he is the first to have come up with an albeit rudimentary, but nevertheless valuable model of the human psyche. For instance the so called Freudian slip of tongue as a measure to ones real intent. The phallic sub-theory that is well-known explains how sex-identity develops in an unconscious level Boeree 1997 between the child and each parent, the boy developing the Oedipus Complex and the girl, the Electra Complex. Freud theorised that these anxieties will then be repressed and will play out through defence mechanisms and anxiety. Much as it had towards Jung and his mystical ideals. This essay is focused on similarities and differences between these two theories and also research for and against each theory.
But Freud's theory has been criticized as not supporte. In the Electra complex, this is reversed in that it is the female children who have sexual desires towards their fathers, and wish to remove their mothers. He felt it was the biggest motivating force behind behaviour and as such psychopathology. And why, then, should you not pluck at my laurels? He was one of the first to really delve into personality and behavior. The first coping style, moving toward people, relies on affiliation and dependence. But while Freud had first thought Jung the heir apparent to psychoanalysis, the relationship between the two began to rapidly deteriorate.