Marxian theory of stratification can be divided into five propositions: 1. Social positions have varying degrees of functional importance. Davis and Moore realize that the difficulty with their theory is to show clearly which positions are functionally most important. In recent years so-called neo-Functionalists have argued that although some of the arguments raised by original orthodox Functionalists are certainly open to criticisms it may nevertheless be legitimate to argue that the incomes of highly paid industrial and financial entrepreneurs and of skilled managers , administrators and professionals within the private and public sectors may to some extent reflect the functionality of their work combined with the relative scarcity of their skills and abilities. In any case there is considerable evidence that on average individuals from differing social class backgrounds are unlikely to have similar perceptions of the social status of different occupations: thus non-manual workers are more likely than manual workers to accord high social status to non-manual work and vice versa which may well reflect class differences in value judgements as to the functionality of different occupations. Tumin again argues that besides money and prestige, there are other rewards that can be used to motivate people.
The second reason is that capitalists control the government as state representatives, and business owners. William James William James is called the founder of Functionalist Theory. Weber used the term Status Community to refer to a group of people with similar social interest, culture, consumption patterns, and lifestyle. Society has been seen thoroughly in three views viz. The society, therefore, always works and maintains itself as a stratified social system. Nonetheless, toll booth workers are necessary and therefore important. He disagreed with their assumption that the relative importance of a particular job can always be measured by how much money or prestige is given to the people who performed those jobs.
In their view occupational differences in incomes derive from differences in the functional importance of different occupations combined with the scarcity of individuals with the talents necessary to undertake functionally important roles. Society is seen as a self-regulating system and all of the constituent elements of a society must contribute to maintaining this state of harmony. Tumin has argued that different societies give importance to different rewards. While explaining social stratification, the structural-functionalists argue that there are certain essential tasks that are to be performed in each society. That person is responsible for just that task. They further put a point that it is a Structural Functionalist Theory in which people, nature, economy, political party and every small aspect of society comes together and work properly in their respective roles to always keep society in a form that is harmonious and hardly affected by anything.
Thus, for example, it might be argued that brain surgeons receive higher salaries than shop assistants because their work is functionally more important and that these income differentials are maintained because shop assistants would be unable to transfer to brain surgery because they lack the talents to do so. The thesis states that social stratification is necessary definition of davis moore our online dictionary has information from a sociology. Against all this the critics deny that large income and wealth inequalities are desirable and inevitable and claim that the Functionalists have neglected the clear dysfunctions of social inequality. For example, if the current year is 2008 and a journal has a 5 year moving wall, articles from the year 2002 are available. Thus stratification occurs in the society which also gives rise to conflict between these two classes.
Their can be other ways, other than inequality, for motivating people to fill important and difficult positions without inequality. According to Marx, the bourgeoisie in capitalist societies exploit workers. How can a woman who isn't yet a mother know that it will be truly rewarding? Political influence is desirable and can be a significant determinant of the structure of stratification. Karl Marx Karl Marx based his conflict theory on the idea that modern society has only two classes of people: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Class- Refers to economic order, or access to material resources. In order to encourage those who are best able to realize these goals it is necessary to offer unequal rewards. As a demographer, Davis was internationally recognized for his expertise in growth and resources, the history and theory of international , world , demographic transition and population policy.
The assumptions of the Equilibrium Theorists can be summarized as follows: i. American Academy of Political and Social Science. Any concrete situation is a product of both. Herbert Spencer,, and Talcott Parsons work are highly dignified in Functionalist Theory. Inequality results because valued social positions are attained not by talent or ability but by force and coercion.
Why do the higher positions carry more status and rewards? In the capitalist society these two classes are: the bourgeoisie which owns the means of production, and the proletariat or the working class which works the means of production and sells his labour for earning the wages. Class itself can be though of as implying a set of life chances and obstacles to social mobility. But almost every woman is expected to become a mother. Nevertheless according to Marxists the class conflict which inevitably exists under capitalism will eventually cause the Proletariat to rise up against the institutions of capitalism which will in turn eventually by replaced by a classless, socialist utopia in which capitalist patterns of social stratification will be shown to be neither desirable nor inevitable. A major function of stratification is to match the most able people with the functionally the most important positions. This creates a cycle where prestige causes more power and privilege and power, and privilege causes more prestige.
Of course other theorists have argued that individuals could be persuaded to work for the common good with no necessary reduction in liberty nor in economic efficiency. Societies are stratified because inequality fulfills an important need of all social systems. It also refers to a person's position relative to established bureacratic organizations whose goal is to influence a type of collective action. Davis and Moore believe that education sifts and sorts according to ability. Marxian theory wrongly defines class antagonism as the only relationship between the two economic classes.
Some also maintain that it is tautological circular , since it proposes that the occupations and other social roles which are most highly rewarded are most important to social stability, and then cites the high levels of reward as evidence of their social importance. But all societies give approval to the behaviour that conforms to the norms of the society. Since times very ancient each society has been living with several social classes. Party- This power comes from Political power. The more is the number of subordinates in the cohesive class; the greater is the rate of conflict between dominant and subordinate classes. It views stratification as the result of a differential distribution of power in society in which coercion, domination and exploitation are the key processes.
It was way too positive driven perspective which neglected the amount of change one should see and bring. Ranks are determined by the members, who agree on what is valuable and what is not valuable. Functionalism is described as a Structural Consensus perspective on Sociology which distinguishes it from Structural Conflict perspectives such as Marxism and from various types of Social Action Sociology. The analysis explores the basic postulates. The more polarised are the dominants and the subordinates, the conflict is much violent. Because the capitalist system works well in the interests of all of its members there will limited conflict in society and a general consensus that the capitalist system should be continued in the future. However in other conflict- based approaches to social stratification such as Marxism, Weberianism and most variants of Feminism , it is argued that social conflict is central to the relationships between the dominant and the subservient social classes and that income inequalities derive largely from the powers of dominant social classes or groups to exploit subservient social class or groups.